Renaissance Notes

Renaissance  (approx. 1300-1600)

  1. Renaissance – “Rebirth”
    1. Renewed interest and study of classical learning
    2. Rediscovery of knowledge from Greek and Roman periods
      1. Art, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, literature
      2. Rediscovered:
        1. Preserved by the Church
        2. Arrived through trade with Byzantine and Muslim empires
        3. Literally finding ancient texts and works of art
    3. Increased trade
      1. Increase in trade → better economy → cultural development
      2. Crusades led to increased contact with the east
        1. Merchants increase trade with Islamic East
      3. Mongol Empire unifies Silk Road
        1. Increases trade to Chinese east
        2. Reports and knowledge of Marco Polo
      4. Coinage makes trade simpler and easier
  2. Italy
    1. A group of many independent city-states
      1. Some republics, others monarchy, papal states- oligarchy
      2. Florence, Rome, Milan, Naples, and Venice the most powerful
    2. Center of european trade- crossroads of east and west
      1. Amassed large amounts of money
      2. Acquired new skills, technologies, goods, and information
    3. Florence
      1. The birthplace of the Renaissance
      2. Medici Family; wealthy banking family that served most kingdoms of europe
        1. Could afford large, ornate, expensive art, architecture, and other goods
          1. Buying creativity and innovation 
  3. Humanism
    1. A new wave of philosophy that prized the dignity of the human person
      1. Seeks a balance between religious faith and human ability
      2. Increased interest in man’s nature and society
      3. Supported humanities; literature, history, ethics, poetry
    2. Encouraged developments in nearly all areas of life; art, architecture,literature, natural philosophy, mathematics, and politics
  4. Developments
    1. Architecture
      1. Brunelleschi- Duomo, ospedale
      2. Revival of greek and roman elements; columns, domes, vaults
    2. Sculpture
      1. Donatello- bronze casting, david, st. george
      2. Michelangelo- david, pieta, moses
      3. Della Robbia- ceramic sculpture
    3. Painting
      1. Developments in perspective
        1. Capturing humanity in a moment and in reality
        2. Use of geometry 
      2. Increased use of oil paint
      3. Michelangelo- Sistine Chapel, Last Judgement
      4. Raphael- workshop, School of Athens, Disputation
      5. Leonardo- Lady with an Ermine, Last Supper, codex
      6. Titian- oil painting
      7. Botticelli 
      8. Albrecht Durer