Crusades Notes- 7 SS

The Crusades and the End of the Byzantine Empire

  1. Shifting of Islamic Powers
    1. Seljuk Turks 
      1. Recently converted Muslims from Central Asia began migrating and conquering Islamic lands
      2. In 1055 they conquered Baghdad and overran Abbasid Dynasty
      3. Marched on Anatolia and defeated Byzantines at Manzikert
    2. Holy Lands
      1. Jerusalem the most holy city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims
      2. Important pilgrimage site
      3. Turks were not tolerant of Christian pilgrims
        1. Robbery and murder
    3. Call for Crusades
      1. Christians worried by Islamic encroachment in Byzantine and Spain
      2. Pope Urban II called for a Holy War 
        1. To reconquer the Holy Lands
        2. To rebuild ties with the Eastern Church
    4. 1st Crusade 1096-1099
      1. 100,000 crusaders fought through Antioch, Palestine, Anatolia, Syria and Jerusalem
        1. Mostly French
      2. Victory contributed mostly to disorganized Islamic governing and leadership
    5. Later Crusades and failures
      1. Later crusades were met with greater resistance and organization of Muslim Turks
      2. No other crusade successfully reconquered the Holy Lands
      3. Not all issued by the pope
      4. Although the Church and her leaders sought to reconquest of Holy lands, some individuals had their own motivations
        1. A group of crusaders and venetians sacked constantinople in 1204
          1. Destroyed relationship between East and West 
        2. Murder of Jewish groups
          1. Many protected by local Christian Bishops
    6. Reconquista 914-1487
      1. Reconquest of Spanish lands by Christian soldiers
      2. Drove out Muslims who had conquered Spain in the previous two centuries
      3. Assisted by French knights
      4. Established and rebuilt new thriving towns and diocese
      5. Established Spanish national Identity