7 SS- Islamic Empire Notes

Islamic Kingdoms and Empires

  1. Begin in the 6th Century in the Arabian Peninsula under Muhammad
    1. A civilization of migrant tribes who lived and worked as merchants
    2. Descendants of Abraham via Hagar and Ishmael
      1. Predominantly polytheistic
  2. Muhammad
    1. Born around 570 in Mecca in the Hashim tribe
    2. Lived most of early life as a merchant with his uncle
    3. In 610 received call to be a prophet of Allah (same God as Jews and Christians)
      1. Leads the monotheistic religion of Islam- called Muslims “those who surrender to God”
      2. Evangelizes teaching to Arabs around Mecca; some accepted, many were angered
    4. After death of Abu Talib, invited to move to Yathrib converts the city, renamed Medina
      1. Meccans felt threatened by rise of Medinan power, war broke out in 624
      2. Medina is victorious and Muhammad is free to continue the spread of Islam
    5. By his death in 632, most of Arabia converted
  3. The Four Caliphs
    1. Caliph is name of Muslim ruler
    2. Abu Bakr 632-634- Muhammad’s father-in-law named Caliph
      1. Unified Arabia under Islamic caliphate and reunited tribes by force
    3. Umar 634-644 – 2nd Caliph
      1. Sought to expand Muslim empire into Iraq, Persia, North Africa and E. Mediterranean
    4. Uthman 644-656 3rd Caliph
      1. Member of Umayyad Clan
      2. Commissions and official edition of the Qur’an (Muslim Holy Book)
      3. Killed by rebels for ruling unfairly
    5. Ali ibn Abi Talib 656-661 4th Caliph
      1. Son-in-law of Muhammad
      2. Civil war began over leadership
        1. Ended in his assassination