8 SS Notes English Colonies

American Roots

  1. The first English Settlements
    1. England in the 16th and 17th Centuries
      1. England was in a period of civil unrest
        1. Due to split with the Catholic Church
        2. New economic system
          1. capitalism
          2. Replacing tenant farmers with Shepherds
        3. Extremist religious groups
        4. This creates many people who want to leave England for a new home
    2. Roanoke
      1. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh, send a group of well-outfitted explorers to prospect N.A.
        1. Land in North Carolina
        2. Stay there for one month 
        3. They return to England a month later to report
          1. Large lush forests
          2. Fertile soil
          3. Gold prospects (lie)
          4. Safe from native attacks (lie)
      2. Sends another vessel to establish a colony in 1587 on Roanoke Island
        1. Sent 100 settlers
        2. Cannot resupply for 3 years due to war with Spain
        3. When they return in 3 years, there is only 
          1. Ruins
          2. No trace of the settlers
          3. And a sign that said “Croatan”
    3. Jamestown
      1. King James I grants a charter to the London Company (Virginia Company) for a settlement in Virginia
        1. Virginia Company is a joint stock (multiple investors)
        2. In 1607, 101 men and 4 boys, on 3 boats, after 5 months arrive in the Chesapeake bay and settle at Jamestown 
          1. Named after King James I
        3. Early difficulties
          1. They landed late in the summer and thus couldn’t plant crops
          2. The settlement was in a wet, humid area
            1. Lots of mosquitos and other bugs
          3. Dirty water on the James river
          4. All the settlers were gentlemen
            1. They were not skilled labourers
            2. Had no building, farming experience
          5. Spent their time searching for gold instead of building shelters and preparing food for winter
          6. Attacks from native Powhatan Confederacy
          7. By 1608, only 38 settlers will have survived
      2. John Smith
        1. A tough and brutal leader sent to reform Jamestown in 1608
        2. Establishes a “no work, no food” policy
        3. Trades with natives for corn
        4. Cut timber, planted crops
        5. Built defences
        6. Leaves in 1609
          1. Poor leadership leads to starvation
    4. Learning from their mistakes
      1. Realized there’s no gold, so they need a new profit
        1. Tobacco grows extremely well, and has grown massively in popularity in Europe
          1. By 1612 they were planting as much tobacco as they could manage
      2. Establish the “Head right system”
        1. If you pay your way, then you are granted 50 acres of land
      3. House of Burgesses (1618)
        1. Virginians create an elected  representative government
        2. Landowners had voting rights
    5. Cost of settlement
      1. In 1625, the king takes the charter from the Virginia Company and declares Virginia a royal colony
      2. By 1624, only 1,275 of 8,500 settlers survived who had arrived in 1607
    6. Plymouth Colony
      1. In 1611 a group of extremist protestants, called the separatists, flee England for the Netherlands
        1. King James I disliked their practices
        2. They were welcomed in Holland, but thought it too comfortable
      2. William Bradford led them aboard the Mayflower to America in 1620
        1. This included a shipful of both pilgrims and “outsider”
          1. A pilgrim is someone on a religious journey
        2. They are 9 weeks later at Cape Cod in the beginning of winter
        3. Bradford form the Mayflower Compact
          1. The granting of political rights to all men willing to remain in Plymouth
      3. Struggle and Survival
        1. Half of the colonists died by the end of the winter
        2. Saved in 1621 by the Patuxent Indian, Squanto
          1. Traveled aboard an English trading ship in 1605
          2. Sympathized with the pilgrims
          3. Taught them to farm corn, pumpkins, and squash
          4. Mediated a peace treaty with the Wampanoag Indians
            1. Pilgrims and Indians agreed to fight for one another
            2. Pilgrims earn the reputation of “cutthroats” in battle
        3. Avoided conflict with natives by purchasing land instead of taking it
        4. In the fall of 1621, they have a meal with the Wampanoags to give thanks for the their first year (thanksgiving)
  2. The Middle Colonies
    1. Includes NY, NJ, PA, DE
    2. Known for their diverse populations
      1. Attracted English, German, Irish, Scottish, French, Welsh, Dutch and other European immigrants
    3. Geography
      1. Hilly, and densely forested
      2. Rich, dark soil
        1. Good for wheat, fruits, and vegetables
      3. Lots of coastland and natural ports
      4. Longer summer, but not extreme heat or cold
    4. New York and New Jersey
      1. Territory was originally under the control of the Dutch as New Amsterdam
      2. In 1664, King Charles II of England gave his brother, James the Duke of York permission to conquer it from the Dutch
        1. Due to naval conflict between the English and Dutch, New Amsterdam was week
        2. James sent his ships, at the sight, New York surrendered without conflict
        3. James allowed them to practice any religion and many other freedoms
        4. However, very strict politically
          1. Placed his own friends in governing positions
      3. New Jersey was separated from the territory and added as an additional colony
      4. James imposed heavy taxes on NY and NJ
        1. This led to Leisler’s Rebellion (1689)
          1. Jacob Leisler gathered colonists who overthrew the government
          2. However, King William sent new delegates who took it back and charged Leisler with Treason
            1. His death served a martyrdom and would inspire future rebellions
    5. Pennsylvania and Delaware
      1. Quaker (Society of Friends) was a religious group that was growing in number
        1. They taught that all people were equal
        2. Pacifists by nature
      2. William Penn, son of an English Lord was a convert to the Quakers
        1. Sought a refuge for Quakers
        2. Due to he and his father’s loyalty, King Charles granted him a charter for PA
        3. Pennsylvania means “Penn’s Woods”
          1. Named for his father
          2. Capital, Philadelphia, means “city of brotherly love”
        4. Penn encouraged immigration by advertising in other countries as well
          1. He marketed religious freedom for all people
        5. Pennsylvania had an early representative government
          1. All men were allowed to vote
          2. Penn encouraged people to purchase land from natives
            1. Not all people would follow this law
        6. Pennsylvania included Delaware originally
          1. Delaware colonists didn’t want to be represented by someone so far away
          2. They were granted their own government
  3. Southern Colonies
    1. Includes VA, MD, NC, SC, GA
      1. All colonies south of the Mason-Dixon Line
        1. Northern boundary of MD
    2. Geography
      1. Lower elevation
      2. Large flat land along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean
      3. Western border includes the Appalachian Mtns.
      4. Hot and Humid
      5. Lacking in large rivers or ports
      6. Long growing season
        1. Primary crops include: tobacco, rice, and later cotton
    3. Refer to earlier notes for VA
    4. Maryland
      1. Founded by Lord Baltimore (George Calvert)
      2. Wanted to find a refuge for Catholics
      3. Granted a charter by the King in 1634
    5. Carolinas
      1. In 1663 8 proprietors wanted to form a civilization based on agriculture
        1. The civilization would include large landowners, yoemen (owned small farms and worked themselves), and serfs who worked for landlords
      2. Primary crops included rice and sugar
        1. Extremely labor intensive
          1. Brought over many slaves to complete the labor
          2. With the introduction of slaves came cattle farming
            1. Slaves were very familiar with this from their home countries
      3. The southern part of the colony grew much more rapidly
        1. The northern settlers didn’t like this and later demanded separation
          1. Thus we have North and South Carolina
          2. Each later received their own charters in 1712 and 1719 respectively
    6. Georgia
      1. James Oglethorpe founded Georgia in 1733 as a refuge for debtors
        1. In England debtors were imprisoned, but then they couldn’t pay their debts because they couldn’t work
        2. Georgia was designed as a place for them to go and re-establish
        3. Restrictions were put in place to make sure they would rehabilitate
          1. Forbade representative assemblies
          2. Banned alcohol
          3. Land grants were small
            1. Initially they couldn’t buy, sell, or trade for more land
          4. Work their own fields
        4. King George II had his own plans for Georgia
          1. He wanted it to be a buffer between Florida (Spanish) and the other colonies
          2. Required all Georgians to serve in the military 
            1. Incase the Spanish attacked
    7. Backcountry
      1. People closer to the Appalachians tended to be poorer and uninvolved in the governments of the colonies
        1. Had their own conflicts and struggles
          1. More attacks from indians
          2. Less communication and trade
      2. Bacon’s Rebellion
        1. Nathaniel Bacon was a backcountry farmer from Virginia
          1. He sought government protection from natives, but the governor refused
            1. VA benefited from fur trade and didn’t want to ruin that
          2. Bacon gathered about 1000 other farmers and they stormed VA
            1. The rebellion will ultimately be thrown down