European Exploration

  1. Native American Civilizations
    1. Land Bridge Theory
      1. Migration of peoples from Siberia through Alaska into N. Amer.
        1. Followed animal migration patterns
      2. About 30,000 years ago
    2. Similarities across native cultures
      1. Close relationship with nature
      2. Used most or all parts of plants and animals
      3. Saw themselves as inherently tied to the land
  2. Age of Exploration
    1. Pre-Columbian
      1. First Europeans to the Americas- Viking in 1001
        1. only remained there temporarily
        2. Arrived by sailing in the north from scandinavia, to iceland, then greenland, and finally arriving in Canada
    2. Leading up to exploration
      1. Significant advances occurred in ship design and navigation in the 14th and 15th centuries
        1. New sail designs
        2. New hull designs
        3. Larger ships and masts
        4. Ocean going vessels
      2. Europeans looking to increase trade with India and Asia
        1. Traveling over land is slow and dangerous due to thieves
        2. Fastest naval route is around the southern coast of Africa
    3. Christopher Columbus
      1. Born in Genoa (Italy)
      2.  Worked in Portugal
      3. Came up with the theory that it would be faster to sail into the Atlantic coast and around the world to East Asia than around the southern tip of Africa
        1. Wasn’t aware of the Americas existence
      4. Portugal won’t support his theory, however Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain do
    4. 1st Voyage to America
      1. Columbus and 90 Spanish sailors set sail in August 1492
        1. On the ships Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
        2. Expected to take 21 days to Asia
        3. Covered 170 miles per day
      2. They travel until Oct. 12 before they arrive
        1. Took much longer
        2. Soldiers were angry and threatened mutiny
        3. Columbus thinks he is in the Indies, however he has arrived in the caribbean
        4. Returned to Spain in Jan. 1493
    5. Columbus Returns
      1. Columbus returns for two more voyages
      2. Spain sends many more men and supplies to take over “asia”
      3. He is made governor of the land
      4. After his third trip he is imprisoned for mis-managing “asia” and not bringing back enough profit
      5. Died thinking he had still arrived in Asia
    6. Continued Exploration
      1. Amerigo Vespucci (1502-1504)
        1. First to conclude that Columbus’ finding was a new world
          1. Not asia
        2. The “new world” is labeled as “the land of Amerigo”
          1. This will evolve into “America”
      2. Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1510)
        1. Arrived in modern day Panama
          1. Narrowest point in Americas
        2. Wanted to explore the land and see if there was another coast
        3. After making his way through the jungle he arrived on the West coast
        4. First person to discover the Pacific ocean 
      3. Ferdinand Magellan (1519)
        1. Still seeking a passage to Asia
        2. Sailed south along the coast of S. Amer. to look for a strait
          1. Strait is a narrow pass through a body of land
        3. Sailed around the South of S. Amer. and continued west into the Pacific Ocean
        4. Arrived in the Philippines where they were attacked and many killed, including Magellan
        5. Eventually in 1522, 18 men on 1 boat arrived back in Spain
          1. First to circumnavigate the globe
            1. Make it all the way around the earth
          2. Originally there was 270 men on 5 boats
    7. Columbian Exchange
      1. Transportation of goods to and from the Americas
      2. Europe sent; cows, hogs, sheep, wheat, rice, banana, sugar, horses, disease
      3. Americas sent; corn, potatoes, peanuts, pumpkin, tomato, cocoa, peppers, turkey, squirrels
  3. Spanish Conquest
    1. Conquistadors
      1. Spanish soldiers and adventurers who set out to conquer land in the Americas
    2. S. American Empires
      1. Aztecs
        1. Hernando Cortes in 1519 marched on Tenochtitlan
          1. Along the way Native groups who disliked the Aztecs joined him
          2. Cortes claimed it from Moctezuma, but was kicked out
          3. Later returns with more conquistadors and wipes out the Aztecs and forms Mexico City on the former Tenochtitlan
      2. Incas
        1. Francisco Pizarro landed in Peru in 1531
          1. Capture Atahualpa (Incan leader) and killed him
          2. Quickly wiped out the remaining Incas
      3. Successful Conquest
        1. Spaniards had more advanced weapons
        2. Spaniards had horses
          1. Indians did not know how to fight these
        3. Peru was recovering from Civil war
        4. Aztecs were hated for their oppressive rule
    3. Exploration of N. America
      1. Many Spaniards explored into modern US
        1. Including Ponce de Leon, Cabeza de Vaca, De Soto, Coronado
        2. Typically encountered aggressive indians that would wipe out large numbers of Conquistadors
        3. Explored most of southern US including; Texas, Florida, Kansas, Arizona
    4. Colonization
      1. Colony is settlement under political control of another country in order to serve the parent country
      2. Methods of colonization
        1. Plantations
          1. Larged farms worked by workers living on the property
        2. Encomiendas
          1. A grant by Spain to demand labor and taxes from local citizens
        3. Missions
          1. Franciscans and other religious order formed missionaries around Americas
          2. This was to introduce locals to Christianity in hopes of conversion
          3. St. Junipero Serra set up mission in modern San Francisco, San Diego, etc
        4. Begin to bring over African slaves in 1517
          1. Healthier and don’t die from disease like native Americans
        5. Class System
          1. Spain controlled a strict class system in order to govern
            1. Peninsulares- Spanish born officials
            2. Creoles- American born to Spanish parents
            3. Mestizos- Spanish and native mix
            4. Mulattos- Spanish and African descent
            5. Native Africans and Americans
  4. North American Competition
    1. Religious Rivalries
      1. The rising impact of the Protestant reformation begins to affect European relations in the 1530s
      2. European Kingdoms align themselves either with the Catholic Church or a Protestant one
        1. England begins its own church under Henry VIII as the church of England
        2. Spain and France remain firmly tied to Catholicism
    2. Religious Conflict Causes Political Conflict
      1. European nations seek goods and resources
      2. Conflict between one another increases risk
      3. Nations need more and can’t rely on one another
      4. Leads to exploration for Asian route
    3. Spanish English Conflict
      1. English are capturing and seizing ships on their return to Europe from Americas
        1. Spain’s economy is being severely affected
      2. England and Spain have been in conflict over Spanish Netherlands
      3. Spain seeks to control England and return it to Catholicism
      4. Send a huge fleet of 130 large warships ships called the Spanish Armada
      5. English are able to defeat them with smaller faster ships and better strategy
        1. This causes a huge blow to Spanish power
    4. Seeking Northern Asian Passage
      1. With Spain controlling the south, other European nations seek a northern route through America to Asia
        1. The Northwest Passage
        2. English, French, Holland
      2. John Cabot 1497
        1. Sailed for England along two voyages exploring from Newfoundland to the Chesapeake Bay
      3. Giovanni da Verrazano 
        1. Sailed for France along the North East coast
      4. Jacques Cartier 
        1. Sailed for France and discovered the St. Lawrence and sailed to Montreal
      5. Henry Hudson 1608
        1. Made 4 trips
          1. First two were unsuccessful for England
          2. 3rd for Holland where he discovered New York and sailed up the Hudson River
          3. 4th he sailed the Hudson bay and was later mutinied and abandoned
    5. Mercantilism
      1. With so much exploration completed, new reports of N. America came in reporting that it was densely forested and fertile with plants and animals
      2. European nations realise the potential of settling in N.A.
      3. Mercantilism is the process of establishing colonies whose entire function is to trade with the parent country
        1. Colonies gather raw materials and purchase goods from parent nation
        2. Parent nation receives raw materials and more wealth
      4. New settlements begin to pop up throughout N.A. with this philosophy in mind
  5. French and Dutch Settlements
    1. New France (1608)
      1. Exploration and Settlement
        1. Samuel de Champlain explored the St. Lawrence River
          1. Discovers Quebec and Montreal
            1. Trading posts
        2. Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
          1. Explores the great lakes, Green Bay, Mississippi River, 
            1. Established missions along the way
            2. Convinced that the Mississippi deposits into the Gulf of Mexico
              1. They were searching for a NW passage
        3. La Salle
          1. Claims the entire Mississippi valley for France
          2. Names it Louisiana in honor of King Louis
    2. New Netherland
      1. Settlement
        1. Settle around the Hudson River Valley
        2. In 1624, 300 dutch settlers form an outpost in Albany
        3. In 1626, they purchase an island (New York) from Natives and establish New Amsterdam
          1. Will later be conquered by the English and named New York
    3. Economy
      1. Primarily focused on fur and skin  trade with locals
        1. Prefer not to fight locals and rather trade
        2. Europeans would trade guns, cloth, manufactured goods, horses, and tools
    4. Native Americans
      1. Hurons
        1. Form an alliance with France
        2. Modern day Quebec
      2. Iroquois
        1. Form an alliance with the Dutch
        2. Modern day New York State
      3. Iroquois used new weapons and resources from trade to attack the Huron