8 SS- Civil War Notes

Civil War

  1. War Begins
    1. Lincoln inaugurated March 4,1861
      1. Claims secession is unconstitutional
    2. Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor
      1. Union held fort island in the middle of the bay
      2. April 12, 1861, Confederates fired on fort for 30 hrs
      3. Union surrendered and evacuated the bay
  2. Strengths and Weaknesses
    1. North- Strengths
      1. 22 million people
      2. 90% of nation’s manufacturing
      3. Most banks
      4. More food producing farms
      5. Contained iron, coal, copper, and gold
      6. Control of seas
      7. 21k miles of railroad track
    2. North- Weaknesses
      1. Weak military leaders
        1. At start of war, ⅓ of officers resigned and went back to the South
    3. South- Strengths
      1. US’s best military leaders; Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson
      2. On the defense- easier to defend than invade
        1. Large
    4. South- Weaknesses
      1. 9 million people
      2. Could be divided in half at the Mississippi R.
      3. Economy
      4. Agriculture for cash crops; cotton, tobacco, etc.
      5. Few factories
  3. Governments
    1. Union
      1. Led by Abraham Lincoln of Illinois
        1. Firm belief in the preservation of the union
    2. South
      1. Formed a confederacy; an alliance of states
      2. Led by President Jefferson Davis of of Mississippi, a former senator
        1. Strong supporter of states’ rights
  4. The Anaconda Plan
    1. Union’s 3 part plan to defeat the Confederates
      1. Surround and blockade southern ports along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico- 1861
      2. Divide confederacy by controlling the Mississippi R.- 1862
        1. Navy with 46 ships led by Admiral David Farragut
        2. Army led by Ulysses S Grant controlled Tennessee and Kentucky
      3. Capture Confederate Capital Richmond- attempted and failed 1862
  5. Battle of Bull Run
    1. Union expected a fast and easy victory of the South
      1. On the way to Richmond, soldiers sang joyful tunes
      2. Spectators brought picnics to watch the battle
    2. North planned to march on Richmond
      1. Rose Greenhow, a DC resident and Southern Spy
        1. Sent letters to Confederacy announcing North’s troop movements
    3. July 1861, Confederates met the North at Manassas, VA on their way to Richmond
      1. N. troops outnumbered the South, but lacked experience and leadership
      2. Southern Troops led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
        1. Refused retreat and had men hold ground
        2. Eventually had men charge at the North troops and sent them fleeing back to DC
    4. Massive victory for the south
      1. Sobered Northerners to realize the war would be neither easy nor quick
  6. Battle of Antietam
    1. South needs trade and assistance from England
      1. England refuses because they are unconvinced by Southern victory
    2. Lee decides to invade Maryland as a show of strength
    3. Met Union General McClellan troops in September at Antietam Creek
      1. Bloodiest day on American soil
        1. Union (75k)- 2,100 dead, 10,300 wounded/missing
        2. South (52K)- 2,770 dead, 11,000 wounded missing
      2. Lee retreats back to VA, McClellan claimed victory but with huge loss
    4. Darkness of War
      1. Many before the war thought it was glorious, however that mindset quickly changed
      2. New technologies led to bigger death
        1. Rifles and improved cannons made weapons more deadly
          1. Less hand to hand combat
      3. Poor medical care
        1. Lacking in knowledge of spread of disease
        2. Didn’t wash hands
        3. Few if no anaesthetics
        4. Dirty hospitals and living conditions
        5. 3 died of disease for every 1 in battle
  7. Emancipation Proclamation
    1. Jan 1, 1863, after victory at Antietam, Lincoln decided time was right to free slaves
      1. Gain respect of foreign nations
      2. Deprive south of workforce
    2. Freed all slaves in the confederate states
      1. Had no immediate effect, but sent important message of freedom for the war
  8. Gettysburg https://www.battlefields.org/learn/maps/gettysburg-animated-map
    1. Summer 1863, Lee wants to invade North again to draw a resignation in the war
    2. Union led by Gen. George Meade, 90,000 troops held out on Cemetery Ridge
    3. Confed. Led by Lee, 75,000 troops, invaded from Seminary Ridge
    4. 3 days of fighting, most casualties in the war; 17,500 union, 23,000 confederate
    5. Lee loses and retreats never to cross back into the North again
    6. Major turning point towards victory for the North
    7. Gettysburg Address
      1. Lincoln’s speech at the opening of a new cemetery dedicated to the dead of the battle of Gettysburg
      2. Connects the Civil War to the Declaration of Independence
      3. Supports the cause that men are created equal; and deserve liberty and equality
  9. Naval Developments
    1. Introduction of Ironclad ships
      1. Changes the standard of naval battle
      2. Renders wooden ships obsolete
    2. Merrimac and the Monitor
      1. Confederates converted an abandoned ship by covering the frame in iron
      2. Union responded by designing and building their own ironclad in 100 days
      3. Confederates used the Merrimac to threaten Union blockade
        1. Was met a day later by the Monitor
      4. 4 hour battle ensued, neither ship could damage the other
  10. VIcksburg
    1. In order to control the Mississippi R, the union needed to capture Vicksburg, MS
      1. A bluff in a bend on the river, easy to defend
    2. May 1863, Gen. Ulysses Grant and Admiral Farragut bombarded VIcksburg with artillery for 6 weeks.
      1. Confederates dug caves to hide in
        1. Eventually had to surrender, no supplies, ate everything they had including horses
  11. State of the Confederacy by 1864
    1. Union blockade prevented imports and exports
      1. Economy crumbled without cotton and tobacco sales
      2. Farmers had to convert farms to food crops
    2. Southern troops often without food
      1. Couldn’t grow enough
      2. Union destroyed crop fields and railroad lines
  12. Women in the War
    1. Women supported the war for both north and south
      1. While at war, women managed and ran farms and businesses
      2. Took jobs in factories, as nurses, and in government offices
      3. Served the military
        1. Spies, scouts, smugglers, messengers, and occasionally fought
    2. Clara Barton
      1. Founded the Red Cross to aid in medical support of the war
  13. African Americans in the War
    1. Some states formed black regiments early in the war
      1. Although, early in the war they were paid less
      2. 166 black regiments during the war
    2. Increased risk of death or enslavement if captured
  14. Ending the War
    1. Grant made General of Union army in March 1864
    2. Grant’s strategy
      1. Total War
        1. War on all fronts to destroy enemies resources and ability to fight
        2. Destroyed farms, railroads, buildings, towns, factories
      2. Ending the war
        1. Grant strike at Richmond
        2. Gen. WIlliam Sherman strike at Atlanta
      3. Grant continually attacked until enemy had to surrender
        1. When invading VA, Grant 100k, Lee 60k
        2. Wilderness- Grant lost 18k men fighting lee
        3. Cold Harbor- Grant lost another 7k in 15min
        4. Grant had resources and men to reinforce, kept sending men to chip away at Lee’s army
    3. Sherman’s March through Georgia
      1. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground
      2. Marched on Savannah and later Raleigh and burned and destroyed everything on the way for 60 miles wide
      3. Lincoln’s Reelection
        1. Opposed by N. Democrat Gen. McClellan
        2. Lincoln was losing in polls
        3. Saved by Sherman’s victories improving hope for ending the war
    4. Petersburg
      1. Took Grant 9 months of fighting with Lee to break through
      2. Once in Petersburg, union could march to Richmond in 2 days
  15. Lee’s Surrender
    1. Appomattox Court House
      1. Grant’s army finally caught Lee’s on April 9, 1865 in the village of Appomattox, VA
      2. Forced Lee to surrender
    2. Terms
      1. If Confederates surrendered, they may return home with horses, mules, and weapons
      2. Grant even sent food and supplies to confederate soldiers
      3. When Union soldiers cheered the victory; they were silenced “The war is over, the rebels are our countrymen again.”
  16. Effects of the War
    1. Created a new identity for the United States as a single nation
    2. 620,000 dead, nearly every family lost someone
    3. 2/5ths livestock in the country dead
    4. Numerous acres of farmland ravaged
    5. First modern war
      1. Railroads, telegraphs, armored ships, accurate and destructive weapons
    6. Introduction of Total War; war between whole societies