French and Indian War Assignment and Notes

French and Indian War Poster

 

Create a infographic /that displays the events of the French and Indian War. It should illustrate the Causes and effects of the War from the beginning (Why the war began), through the middle (The major events/battles of the war), to the end (What were the outcomes of the war for the French, English, and colonials). Your poster should be well designed; neat, organized, and effective display of the information. It should be in color and visually appealing. Think of an infographic or posters at museums and parks.

 

This is due by the end of class on Wednesday!

 

French and Indian War (1756-1763) aka 7 Years War

  1. Background
    1. England had been in multiple wars with France and Spain since 1688
      1. Wars in Europe affected life in the colonies
    2. English colonists continued to push westward in search of more land
    3. France wanted to connect their land between Canada and Louisiana with forts and roads
  2. War Begins
    1. Virginia was pushing west by purchasing indian lands
      1. As they grew close to the Ohio Valley, they noticed increased French activity
      2. With permission from Britain, they sent an expedition to Fort Duquesne
        1. Expedition was led by 21 year old militia officer, Major George Washington
    2. Fort Duquesne (in modern day Pittsburgh)
      1. Washington and his troops gave a warning to the French in 1754
        1. French responded with insulting sarcasm
        2. Washington returned to Virginia with message
      2. Washington returns to build Fort Necessity 50 miles south in 1755
        1. After a small english victory the French attack and conquer Fort Necessity
          1. Washington surrenders and is released to return to VA
      3. Britain send General Braddock and a large number of English Regulars to attack the fort 1756
        1. Washington joins as a volunteer
        2. Braddock uses European strategies
        3. French successfully defend and kill at least half of Braddock’s soldiers including Braddock
    3. The Albany Congress and other Alliances
      1. British Government formed the Albany Congress to unite colonials and natives against France 1756
        1. To fund the war, the Congress formed a tax
          1. Wasn’t approved by local governments though
      2. Tried to form an early alliance with Iroquois League, but they wouldn’t agree until 1759
      3. The French gathered the support of the Huron and Senecas
    4. War
      1. English soldiers were accustomed to European fighting
        1. Open field battles
        2. Marching in horizontal lines
      2. Natives, French, and Colonials fought with more Guerilla tactics
        1. Waiting in woods, and ambushing surprised troops
        2. Groups of soldiers who fight in clusters instead of lines
      3. The French succeeded early in the war
        1. Conquered the British forts Oswego, William Henry, and many others
    5. British Victory
      1. Prime Minister of Britain, William Pitt sees importance of victory
        1. Sends 24,000 British Regulars and approves 25,000 Colonial Troops
        2. Appoints the young and very intelligent General James Wolfe in charge
      2. Wolfe marches on Fort Duquesne with success 1758
        1. Renames in Fort Pitt in honor of WIlliam Pitt
      3. In 1759 Wolfe makes his way to the capital Fort City Quebec (Fort Saint-Jean)
        1. Fort Saint-Jean is on a tall cliff overlooking the St. Lawrence River and led by General Montcalm
          1. The only way to attack it is from the Plains of Abraham on the other side, but this is nearly impossible to get to
          2. Wolfe managed to find a blockaded but undefended road that ran steeply up the cliff
        2. 4,500 British marched on the Plains of Abraham towards Fort Saint-Jean
        3. Montcalm sent 4,000 French to defend
        4. Wolfe, due to strategy, wins the battle
          1. Wolfe and Montcalm are both killed in the engagement
        5. 5 Days later the French officially surrender
          1. Although many battles will continue afterward
    6. Outcomes
      1. The French sign the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and give all landownings, except New Orleans and a few islands, to the British
        1. Additionally, Britain gained Florida from Spain due to Spain’s alliance with France
      2. Pontiac’s War
        1. Colonists push west encroaching on more Indian Territory
        2. Natives unite and rebel but are later thrown down
        3. English declare the Proclamation Act of 1763 to limit colonist expansion
      3. Increase in colonial identity and unity
      4. Massive debt for Britain